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How To Test Water Quality At Home Without A Kit? 10 DIY Ways

How to test water quality at home without a kit


Your tap or well water could have various contaminants that can’t be seen with the naked eye, but their color, taste, and smell have both aesthetic and health issues. If you want to ensure safe drinking, numerous ways can assist you.

You can determine the water quality by analyzing its color, smell, taste, and residues, which it can leave behind. Additionally, various TDS, hardness, and pH tests can be performed without using a Kit. However, these tests don’t promise to give 100% results, so it is recommended to go for lab testing. 

In this article, I will be describing the best ways to test your water quality at home without a kit. Let’s dive into it!

Why Do I Need To Check Water Quality?

Do you know our water could be contaminated with thousands of chemicals, including PFAs, pesticides, microplastics, heavy metals, and other toxins? You could be drinking one of those harmful chemicals if you’re water quality is not determined. 

According to WHO, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, nitrates, pesticides, PFAs, microplastics, and microorganisms can be found in the water supply, which are severe threats to human health. The most important reason to check water quality is to save ourselves from these contaminants to avoid gastric, viral, neurological, cancerous, and congenital disabilities. 

10 Best Ways– How to Test Water Quality without A Kit?

A list of 10 ways to test water quality at home without a kit is as follow:

1. Examine The Water’s Appearance With Naked Eyes

examine the water appearance with the naked eyes

The first and most important thing to do in checking the water quality at your home is to observe the color and appearance of the water.

  • Green-Bluish Color: The corrosion of copper plumbing and brass fittings usually causes green-bluish water. You may need to replace them with new ones to avoid further corrosion.
  • Brown, red, orange, or yellow Color: It indicates the presence of iron, iron bacteria, and rust. It can be handled by using iron filters or oxidation media.
  • Milky white or cloudy Color: It is usually caused by tiny air bubbles, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur bacteria in the pumping system. Oxidation media or activated carbon filters can be used to remove sulfur smell and other stuff.

You cannot detect chemicals or microbes by this method, but you can still look for the cloudiness, turbidity, or decolorization of water. Water turbidity is not always harmful and can be due to excess air. However, this could also suggest metals or toxins in your water. Thus, you should always pay attention to the turbidity of water.

2. Examine Water With Magnifying Glass

Examine Water With Magnifying Glass

After examining the water’s appearance with your naked eyes, do not forget to try it with a magnifying glass. You can do it by placing water in a clear glass and placing it near direct light. Take a closer look at the water; if you see any odd particles, analyze them. 

  • Clouds or foam: If your water forms clouds or foam that lasts for a few minutes, the water in your home could be contaminated with high mineral levels or sulfur compounds. 
  • Red or Brown Particles or Flakes: You may feel your well water brown after rain or flooding, which indicates the presence of iron, manganese, tannin, or surface runoff contamination. Further, Iron and manganese presence can be confirmed if your water leaves brownish or orange-colored stains on your home appliances. 
  • Yellow Particles or Mud: If your well water is yellow, it’s likely to have particles such as sand, clay, or silt settle down after a while in a glass, which means your water has sediment issues. There are various other reasons for having a yellow tint in well water —click on the link to learn more.
  • White or Tan Particles: They can indicate excess calcium, magnesium, and potassium, which make your water hard. You can experience the white scales on your appliances, for example, glass shower doors, faucets, and sinks. 

Check our list of Best Whole House Water Filters to Remove Sulfur Smell

3. Smell The Water

smell the water

You should trust your senses when testing your water without a kit. Even the laboratories smell the water during the testing. But what do different smells indicate? Here are some of the odors and their indications that can assist you in knowing the present contamination in the water. 

  • Rotten-egg or Sewage-like Smell: Elevated levels of hydrogen sulfide and bacterial growth in your water can produce a rotten-egg-like smell that can cause nausea, headaches, delirium, and convulsions. You can improve the water quality by using specialized filters such as carbon filter, which removes the sulfur smell from well water. 
  • Musty Smell: A musty, spicy, grassy smell indicates the decay of organic matter, such as tannins or blue-green algae, in the pipe or water.
  • Fuel-like Smell: It is a strong indicator of industrial chemicals in your water, while an intense chemical odor indicates the presence of pesticides.
  • Bleaching Smell: The bleach smell from your water is a sign of water treated with chlorine, which can dissipate if the water is exposed to air for a little while. Alternatively, you can use various natural methods to remove chlorine or buy a water filter for its removal. 
  • Fishy-like Smell: This smell is usually caused by organic metals like barium, cadmium, and some bacteria that feed on the organic matter. 

4. Taste The Water

taste the water

Tasting the water should be your last priority for doing a water test at your home. Pure water is tasteless; some tastes and flavors indicate the presence of impurities, such as:

  • Metallic Taste: It shows the extra levels of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, and other trace metals and acidic water. It can be resolved by using ion exchange and reverse osmosis filters. 
  • Bleach-like Taste: It indicates excess chlorine, which activated carbon filters can easily remove. 
  • Salty Taste: It indicates the presence of salts such as sodium, potassium, and others. You may need to install water softeners or ion exchange media to get rid of it. 
  • Medicine or TCP Taste: The taste of medicine or TCP (trichlorophenol) is often linked to deteriorated components within tap fixtures, including washers, rubber extensions, and other fittings. These may include sealing rings in electric kettles and flexible hoses in washing machines and dishwashers. So, Installing reverse osmosis filters would be the best solution to reduce these chemicals. 
  • Plastic-like Water Taste: It represents the leachates from your plastic pipes or inappropriate plumbing materials. You may need to change them periodically.


Spit the water from your mouth if you feel any of these tastes after a sip. Never drink it!

5. Total Dissolved Solids Test Without Kit

Water Boiling For A Total Dissolved Solids Test

You can check the total dissolved solids(TDS) by boiling your water. Checking the water by this method requires you to boil it in a clean pot without a lid. After this, let the water cool down. 

Observing chalky white residue or sticky particles on the bottom of your pot indicates the high TDS in your water supply. This method doesn’t reveal the exact amount of TDS. Still, it indicates you need an ion exchange media or a water filter to lower the TDS level. 

6. Water Hardness Test Without Kit 

Soap Suds Test With Castile Soap

If you notice white stains on dishes, plumbing fixtures, and countertops, scum residue on your showers and sinks, or dryness on the skin after washing —all are signs of hardness. 

Another way to conduct a home-based water hardness test without a kit is by using a natural perfume-free soap such as castile. You need to follow these simple steps to perform the soap suds test:

  • Firstly, fill a clean, sterilized, and empty bottle with water.
  • Add 3 to 4 drops of natural liquid soap. 
  • Shake the bottle for at least 20 sec.
  • Now, observe the water.

Your home has hard water if you see cloudiness or a milky appearance defined by the calcium and magnesium minerals it contains. The higher the mineral content, the “harder” the water.

There are various treatments available in the form of water filters and pitchers that can be used to remove hardness from well water.   

7. Obtaining A Water Quality Report For Your Location

The most authentic way of ensuring water quality at home without a kit is to get a water quality report of your location. You can do it in three simple ways:

  • The easiest and most reliable way to obtain a water quality report for your area is by visiting the EPA website. You will find the annual report and much more data about your water.
  • Ask your water company to give you a report.
  • Contact the local municipality and ask them to give you a copy of the annual water report of your area.

8. Kitchen Faucet Aerator Test

Kitchen Faucet Aerator Test

Typically, the purpose of such a test is to assess the quality of the water coming out of the faucet and to identify any potential contaminants or impurities that may be present.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sediment, TDS, and microorganisms can accumulate in water pipes over time and may be visible in the form of particles or debris in the water. Aerator tests can help identify the presence of residues. Additionally, check if the faucets or pipes are corrosive, which indicates a low pH.

Your kitchen faucet tells a lot about the water you are drinking. For example, If your water supply has a high amount of minerals, it can build up in your aerator, which is at the end of the faucet. Here is how you can check it

  • Check the impurities in the water by removing the aerator and placing it into a bowl of white vinegar.
  • Check the aerator for any clogs or mineral deposits that may obstruct water flow.
  • If clogged, clean the aerator by soaking it in vinegar or using a brush. If damaged, replace it with a new one of the same size.
  • Screw the aerator back onto the faucet spout and turn on the water flow.

9. Toilet Flush Tank Inspection Test 

Toilet Flush Tank Inspection Test

It sounds weird to inspect your toilet tank but trust me, it tells a lot about water contamination. Here is the list of a few conditions of the toilet flush tank that indicate contamination:

  • Blue or Green Stain: indication of copper in your well water.
  • Rust Stains: The rust color of the water is often linked with iron in your water.
  • Black Deposits: If your flush tank has black deposits at the bottom, your water has manganese.
  • Slimy Deposits: A most common cause that you can see in everyone’s home in the US—the large sludge-like slimy deposits of iron bacteria.

For a complete guide, you can visit the link on how to test iron bacteria in drinking water

All the conditions mentioned above indicate that your water supply is contaminated with impurities, and you may need a water filter system to treat your water.

10. Testing Water pH Without Kit 

Test The pH of Water Using Red Cabbage

The pH of water should be maintained in a healthy range. Excessive higher or lower pH results in abnormal conditions in our body. Thus, knowing the pH of water is extremely important, and here is a method to test water pH without a kit using red cabbage:

  • Grate the red cabbage with a clean knife and put it in a transparent bowl.
  • Take a separate pot and boil two cups of distilled water.
  • Pour the boiled water into the red cabbage.
  • Hold a wooden spatula, stir for a few seconds, and wait for 30 minutes until the purple color is obtained. This purplish liquid will work as your pH indicator.
  • Strain it and discard the cabbage.
  • Bring a separate bowl and pour a small amount of your drinking water.
  • Add a few drops of red cabbage pH indicator into the water and observe the color of the water.

The water will be either acidic (pink), neutral (purple), or alkaline (greenish-blue). You can check the accurate pH by comparing your water color to a pH color chart. 

Red cabbage is a reliable pH indicator; however, you can also check the pH of water without a kit using other vegetables or fruits, such as blueberries, plums, etc.

How Can I Test Water Quality At Home With A Kit? 

First of all, you need to buy a water testing kit. Ensure that the test strip you buy is all-in-one, allowing the detection of more than one contaminant.

How Can I Test Water Quality At Home With A Kit

Every brand kit will have specific instructions, but the general steps are the same. Home test kits require collecting a small amount of water in a clean container and dipping the test strip into the water for a few minutes. The results are identified by a color chart provided with the kit.

How To Test Water Quality In The Lab—the Most Accurate Method 

Laboratory testing for checking water quality is the most reliable method; everyone should do it occasionally. EPA recommends trusting only ISO-certified laboratories for testing the water. For testing, you need to collect a water sample and send it to the laboratory, and it will take 1-2 weeks, depending on the quality, contamination type, and procedure. 

Labs follow these three tests to analyze the water sample:

1. Physical Test

In the physical test of water, the laboratorian observes the color, smell, taste, turbidity, amount of total solids, dissolved solids, and suspended solids.

2. Chemical Test

Chemical tests detect all the toxins found in your water. It also determines the water hardness, pH, and BOD. This critical test tells you about the number of chemicals, minerals, and oxygen in your water sample.

3. Bacteriological Test

A bacteriological test determines the presence of harmful microbes in your water sample. If any dangerous pathogen contaminates your water, you can get ill with numerous infectious diseases.


Analyzing drinking water quality is essential for your and your family’s well-being. The quickest way to check the contamination in your water is by testing it at home with or without the kit. 

You can acquire a water quality report or conduct a laboratory test for precise results. However, when you require immediate results, consider exploring the above ten ways to test water quality at home without needing a specialized kit.


Some other questions and answers for our readers might be helpful for reading.

How To Test Water For Bacteria At Home?

Unfortunately, you cannot test water for bacteria at home. The bacteriological test of water can be conducted in labs. Many waterborne diseases can be caused by contaminating pathogens in drinking water.

Where Can I Buy A Free Water Testing Kit?

You can buy a free water testing kit at Lowe’s, Home Depot, Aqua Science, US Water LLC, and many other companies. People should ensure that EPA approves the test kit they buy, as this will guarantee that the results are accurate and reliable.

How Frequently Should You Test Your Water?

Water testing is recommended yearly or after installing new pipes or water systems to ensure the water is safe to drink. It is especially important in areas with known contaminants or where the water supply may be compromised. Regular testing can help identify potential health hazards and prevent illness.

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